Created by: CK-12/Adapted by Christine Miller
All in the Family
This family photo (Figure 5.12.1) clearly illustrates an important point: children in a family resemble their parents and each other, but the children never look exactly the same, unless they are identical twins. Each of the daughters in the photo have inherited a unique combination of traits from the parents. In this concept, you will learn how this happens. It all begins with sex — sexual reproduction, that is.
is the process by which organisms give rise to offspring. It is one of the defining characteristics of living things. Like many other organisms, human beings reproduce sexually. involves two parents. As you can see from Figure 5.12.2, in sexual reproduction, parents produce reproductive (sex) cells — called — that unite to form an offspring. Gametes are (or ) cells. This means they contain one copy of each chromosome in the nucleus. Gametes are produced by a type of cell division called , which is described in detail below. The process in which two gametes unite is called . The fertilized cell that results is referred to as a . A zygote is a (or ) cell, which means it contains two copies of each chromosome. Thus, it has twice the number of chromosomes as a gamete.
The process that produces haploid gametes is called meiosis. is a type of cell division in which the number of is reduced by half. It occurs only in certain special cells of an organism. During meiosis, separate, and four cells form that have only one chromosome from each pair. The diagram (Figure 5.12.3) gives an overview of meiosis.
As you can see in the meiosis diagram, two cell divisions occur during the overall process, producing a total of four cells from one parent cell. The two cell divisions are called meiosis I and meiosis II. Meiosis I begins after during . Meiosis II follows meiosis I without DNA replicating again. Both meiosis I and meiosis II occur in four phases, called prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. You may recognize these four phases from mitosis, the division of the nucleus that takes place during routine cell division of eukaryotic cells.
Meiosis I- Increasing genetic variation
The phases of Meiosis I are:
- Prophase I: The nuclear envelope begins to break down, and the chromosomes condense. Centrioles start moving to opposite poles of the cell, and a spindle begins to form. Importantly, homologous chromosomes pair up, which is unique to prophase I. In prophase of mitosis and meiosis II, homologous chromosomes do not form pairs in this way. During prophase I, crossing-over occurs. The significance of crossing-over is discussed below.
- Metaphase I: Spindle fibres attach to the paired homologous chromosomes. The paired chromosomes line up along the equator of the cell, randomly aligning in a process called independent alignment. The significance of independent alignment is discussed below. This occurs only in metaphase I. In metaphase of mitosis and meiosis II, it is sister chromatids that line up along the equator of the cell.
- Anaphase I: Spindle fibres shorten, and the chromosomes of each homologous pair start to separate from each other. One chromosome of each pair moves toward one pole of the cell, and the other chromosome moves toward the opposite pole.
- Telophase I and Cytokinesis: The spindle breaks down, and new nuclear membranes form. The cytoplasm of the cell divides, and two haploid daughter cells result. The daughter cells each have a random assortment of chromosomes, with one from each homologous pair. Both daughter cells go on to meiosis II.
Meiosis II- Halfing the DNA
The phases of Meiosis II are:
- Prophase II: The nuclear envelope breaks down, and the spindle begins to form in each haploid daughter cell from meiosis I. The centrioles also start to separate.
- Metaphase II: Spindle fibres line up the sister chromatids of each chromosome along the equator of the cell.
- Anaphase II: Sister chromatids separate and move to opposite poles.
- Telophase II and Cytokinesis: The spindle breaks down, and new nuclear membranes form. The cytoplasm of each cell divides, and four haploid cells result. Each cell has a unique combination of chromosomes.
Sexual Reproduction and Genetic Variation
“It takes two to tango” might be a euphemism for sexual reproduction. Requiring two individuals to produce offspring, however, is also the main drawback of this way of reproducing, because it requires extra steps — and often a certain amount of luck — to successfully reproduce with a partner. On the other hand, sexual reproduction greatly increases the potential for genetic variation in offspring, which increases the likelihood that the resulting offspring will have genetic advantages. In fact, each offspring produced is almost guaranteed to be genetically unique, differing from both parents and from any other offspring. Sexual reproduction increases genetic variation in a number of ways:
- When homologous chromosomes pair up during meiosis I, crossing-over can occur. is the exchange of genetic material between non-sister chromatids of . It results in new combinations of genes on each chromosome. This is called recombination. You can see how it happens in the figure to the right.
- When cells divide during meiosis, homologous chromosomes are randomly distributed to daughter cells, and different chromosomes segregate independently of each other. This is called . It results in gametes that have unique combinations of chromosomes. You can see how it happens in Figure 5.12.7.
- In sexual reproduction, two gametes unite to produce an offspring. But which two of the millions of possible gametes will it be? This is a matter of chance, and it’s obviously another source of genetic variation in offspring.
With all of this recombination of genes, there is a need for a new set of vocabulary. Remember, that sister chromatids are two identical pieces of DNA connected at a centromere. Once crossing over has occured, we can no longer call them sister chromatids since they are no longer identical; we term them dyads. In addition, once crossing over has occurred, the pair of homologous chromosomes can be referred to as tetrads.
All of these mechanisms — crossing over, independent assortment, and the random union of gametes — work together to result in an amazing range of potential genetic variation. Each human couple, for example, has the potential to produce more than 64 trillion genetically unique children. No wonder we are all different!
Meiosis (updated), Amoeba Sisters, 2017.
At the end of meiosis, four haploid cells have been produced, but the cells are not yet gametes. The cells need to develop before they become mature gametes capable of fertilization. The development of haploid cells into gametes is called gametogenesis. It differs between males and females.
- A gamete produced by a male is called a , and the process that produces a mature sperm is called . During this process, a sperm cell grows a tail and gains the ability to “swim,” like the human sperm cell shown in Figure 5.12.8.
- A gamete produced by a female is called an and the process that produces a mature egg is called , during which just one functional egg is produced. The other three haploid cells that result from meiosis are called polar bodies, and they disintegrate. The single egg is a very large cell, as you can see from the human egg also shown in Figure 5.12.8.
- In , two parents produce that unite in the process of to form a single-celled . Gametes are cells with one copy of each of the 23 chromosomes, and the zygote is a cell with two copies of each of the 23 chromosomes.
- is the type of cell division that produces four haploid daughter cells that may become gametes. Meiosis occurs in two stages, called meiosis I and meiosis II, each of which occurs in four phases (prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase).
- Meiosis is followed by , the process during which the haploid daughter cells change into mature gametes. Males produce gametes called in a process known as , and females produce gametes called in the process known as .
- Sexual reproduction produces genetically unique offspring. , , and the random union of gametes work together to result in an amazing range of potential genetic variation.
- Explain how sexual reproduction happens at the cellular level.
- Summarize what happens during Meiosis.
- Compare and contrast gametogenesis in males and females.
- Explain the mechanisms that increase genetic variation in the offspring produced by sexual reproduction.
- Why do gametes need to be haploid? What would happen to the chromosome number after fertilization if they were diploid?
- Describe one difference between Prophase I of Meiosis and Prophase of Mitosis.
- Do all of the chromosomes that you got from your mother go into one of your gametes? Why or why not?
Meiosis: Where the Sex Starts – Crash Course Biology #13, CrashCourse, 2012.
Mitosis vs Meiosis Comparison, Amoeba Sisters, 2018.
Human Life Cycle by Christine Miller is used under a CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/) license.
MajorEventsInMeiosis_variant_int by PatríciaR (internationalization) on Wikimedia Commons is used and adapted by Christine Miller. This image in the public domain. (Original image from NCBI; original vector version by Jakov.)
Amoeba Sisters. (2017, July 11). Meiosis (updated). YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VzDMG7ke69g&feature=youtu.be
Amoeba Sisters. (2018, May 31). Mitosis vs meiosis comparison. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zrKdz93WlVk&feature=youtu.be
CrashCourse, (2012, April 23). Meiosis: Where the sex starts – Crash Course Biology #13. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qCLmR9-YY7o&feature=youtu.be
OpenStax CNX. (2016, May 27). Figure 1 Crossover may occur at different locations on the chromosome. In OpenStax, Biology (Section 17.2). http://firstname.lastname@example.org.
The production of offspring by sexual or asexual process.
A type of reproduction that involves a complex life cycle in which a gamete with a single set of chromosomes combines with another to produce an organism composed of cells with two sets of chromosomes.
A mature haploid male or female germ cell which is able to unite with another of the opposite sex in sexual reproduction to form a zygote.
The term used when a cell has half the usual number of chromosomes.
The term used when a cell has half the usual number of chromosomes.
A special type of cell division in sexually-reproducing organisms used to produce the gametes, such as sperm or egg cells. It involves two rounds of division that ultimately result in four cells with only one copy of each chromosome.
The fusion of haploid gametes, egg and sperm, to form the diploid zygote.
The union of the sperm cell and the egg cell. Also known as a fertilized ovum, the zygote begins as a single cell but divides rapidly in the days following fertilization. After this two-week period of cell division, the zygote eventually becomes an embryo.
Describes a cell that contain two copies of each chromosome.
A threadlike structure of nucleic acids and protein found in the nucleus of most living cells, carrying genetic information in the form of genes.
Two pieces of DNA within a diploid organism which carry the same types genes, one from each parental source.
The process by which DNA is copied.
The longest stage in the eukaryotic cell cycle during which the cell acquires nutrients, creates and uses proteins and other molecules, and starts the process of cell division by replicating the DNA.
The exchange of genetic material between two homologous chromosomes non-sister chromatids that results in recombinant chromosomes during sexual reproduction.
The way in which different genes independently separate from one another when reproductive cells develop. During meiosis, the pairs of homologous chromosome are divided in half to form haploid cells, and this separation, or assortment, of homologous chromosomes is random.
The male reproductive cell.
The production or development of mature spermatozoa.
A mature female reproductive cell, especially of a human or other animal, which can divide to give rise to an embryo usually only after fertilization by a male cell.
The production or development of an ovum.
The process whereby a haploid cell (n) is formed from a diploid cell (2n) through meiosis and cell differentiation. Gametogenesis in the male is known as spermatogenesis and produces spermatozoa. Gametogenesis in the female is known as oogenesis and result in the formation of ova.